Before 2009, schools serving non-English speakers had to teach English as a subject only from grade 3 and all subjects were taught in English from grade 4 (except in Afrikaans language schools). This list contains details of language schools, international schools and other institutions offering English language courses in South Africa. This positions English as central and African languages as peripheral in children’s literature in South Africa. Mohammed Khelef contributed to this report. MC. Languages of instruction in African schools include English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Afrikaans. Raising the status and offering of African languages at universities will provide additional support for change at school level. Please find below many ways to say school in different languages. The purpose of this draft policy is to give specific protection to African languages, for learners who speak an African language at home and for learners who do not. In September 2013, the national Department of Basic Education released a draft policy on the incremental introduction of African languages in schools. The idea is to get African languages being used as a medium of instruction, just as English is in British schools, and Kiswahili is in Kenya. Only a fraction of the students will, however, end up working in white-collar jobs, says Brock-Utne. In Nigeria, there are over 500 local languages, but teaching mainly takes place in English. Most words of African origin used in English are nouns describing animals, plants, or cultural practices that have their origins in Africa (mostly sub-Saharan African; Arabic words not included unless another African language is an intermediary). Children from Black African language speaking backgrounds, who attend elite primary schools, currently do not see their cultural and linguistic resources valued. The use of only one language, Amharic, has led to quite a bit of resistance, explains Axel Fleisch, a professor of African Studies at the University of Frankfurt. The IIAL strategy however, continues to position English and Afrikaans as academic subjects, and African languages as third, or conversational languages only. Imagine starting school and not being able to understand your teacher. In Kenya, the language of instruction is English, and some learners in urban and some cosmopolitan settings speak and understand some English by the time they join school. For example, the Western Cape Education Department (WCED) aims to roll out the Incremental Introduction of African Languages (IIAL) in 900 schools by … On another level, there are linguistic tensions between the ethnic Europeans and the black majority, mostly in regard to language instruction in schools. That's what DW wanted to find out. "school district" means a geographical unit as determined by the relevant provincial legislation, or prevailing provincial practice 4. Yet, the most prestigious primary schools are lagging behind on African language subject provision. Establishing African languages as academic subjects could contribute to disrupting the colonial and Apartheid hierarchy of ways of knowing and being. The second speaks against this idea, because it maintains that African languages do not have capacity to be used as languages of teaching and learning. Few areas in Africa have just one dominant language. That's a reality for many African first-graders who speak their mother tongues at home and are taught in English, French or Portuguese at school. Contact It's counterproductive, say educational experts. Today, the colonial languages remain what teachers use to instruct students in most of the African schools. For example, the Western Cape Education Department (WCED) aims to roll out the, Incremental Introduction of African Languages. They're spoken at home, on the street and perhaps on the local radio and TV stations, but very few have made it into the classroom. What does it mean to learn in foreign languages and in a foreign context? It is a Bantu language believed to have originated from other languages, mainly Arabic, due to historical interactions between Arabs from the Middle East and East Africans. © 2020 Deutsche Welle | The first dilemma an African child faces when enrolled in a formal school is the language of teaching. In Kenya, the language of instruction is English, and some learners in urban and some cosmopolitan settings speak and understand some English by the time they join school. Considering that an increasing number of learners in these schools are already African language speakers, this is not adding to their load. Language learning areas: Refers to any of the 11 official languages, other languages approved by the Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB), Braille and South African Sign Language, approved by UMALUSI. Across the continent, creative bilingual textbook development is happening in Tanzania and Rwanda. Schools will have choices regarding which African language is taught based on the language spoken by the majority. Swahili is the most spoken language in Africa, with over 100 million speakers. We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Organizations like USAID or the International Organization of La Francophonie have programs which support the development of teaching material and teacher training. attachment, language can be a potent source of disadvantage at school because in many countries children are taught and take tests in languages they do not understand. While English, Portuguese and French have their colonial origins, even some of the African languages have negative connotations, says Fleisch. The variety and the use of those languages depend very much on the colonialist legacy. Prerequisite: No previous study of the language or one year of the language in high school. Although the teaching of African languages at the elementary and secondary levels is rare, a number of schools offer one or more of the following major African languages at these levels: Arabic (North Africa), Hausa (West Africa), Swahili (East Africa), Wolof (Senegal), Yoruba (Nigeria), and Xhosa and Zulu (South Africa). South Africa is a multi-lingual society that has some unique linguistic problems because of its policy of apartheid. and the first year of schooling is provided in all these home languages. Currently, even though South Africa constitutionalised the equity of its multitude of languages, in practice, African languages still exist at the bottom of the hierarchical communicative space. IIAL is a strategy aimed at introducing previously marginalised official languages in all the schools that are currently not offering any African language, other than Afrikaans. Afrikaans has a fascinating history of its own, and a heritage and culture that are deeply entwined in its character. The second most popular African Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics degree that people get is a doctoral degree which illustrates a focus on higher learning. azawakh – probably from Fula or Tuareg.A breed of dog from West and North Africa by Kuntz, Patricia. Introduction. A pilot project is currently introducing the most widely-spoken languages Haussa, Yoruba and Igbo into the curriculum in primary schools. It was often missionaries who wrote down the languages and to teach them, you would first have to agree on a common way of writing them. So in South Africa's schools the final high school exam after grade 12, the South African Matric, will be written in two languages usually English and Afrikaans, one as home language the other as first additional language.. "It would, of course, be better for the children to learn in a language they already know. | Mobile version, Ngugi wa Thiong'o: 'African languages need to talk to each other', Wiki foundation wants to decolonize the internet with more African contributors. AFLA 102 ELEMENTARY AFRICAN LANGUAGE II--Three hours; 3 credits. language medium which cannot be accommodated by schools. Skip to main content. The most common African Languages, Literatures, and Linguistics degree earned was a bachelor's degree and it also has the widest range of school possibilities as well. Language schools in Africa are a big draw not only for students interested in learning critical languages, such as Swahili or Arabic, but also for students who want to practice more common languages, like Portuguese and French, in a very unique context. The following list includes some examples. English and Afrikaans speaking children are not taught to respect African languages, and by extension the people who speak them, as equally suited to carrying academic meanings. The Kenyan author and Ngugi wa Thiong'o has his own vision of how languages should be taught in school. This places African languages at the centre of discussion where education is concerned. For example, the Western Cape Education Department (WCED) aims to roll out the Incremental Introduction of African Languages (IIAL) in 900 schools by 2020. Prerequisite: AFLA 101 or one to two years of the language in high school. The Teaching of African Languages in Schools: A Note on the Position in Kenya - Volume 11 Issue 2 - William H. Laughton. more prominence for African languages in the public domain, it is not surprising that even rural schools introduce English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT) much earlier than Grade 4. We use cookies to improve our service for you. The WCED offers no support to schools to fund teachers, allocate teaching time, or provide textbooks and other materials in isiXhosa. Swahili is Tanzania’s official language, as well as the medium of instruction in all schools. "My policy which I am advocating is simple: Start with your mother tongue. Legal notice | Learn an African Language. Language policies that privilege English and Afrikaans may suit the historical population of white children, but those policies marginalise African language speaking children (Another group which is marginalised by the status quo, is children who speak non-standard varieties of Afrikaans, such as Kaaps). AFLA 102 ELEMENTARY AFRICAN LANGUAGE II--Three hours; 3 credits. In a survey that was held by UNESCO in 2004, it was revealed that 70 to 75 per cent of all African children in nursery and primary schools were taught in an African language. After a period of some inertia, a number of projects have recently been undertaken to develop the African languages by both the university sector and the Pan South African Language Board (PanSALB). According to UNESCO's  "Global Education Monitoring Report 2016," teaching in the mother tongue is vital, especially at a primary school level. Prerequisite: No previous study of the language or one year of the language in high school. But the commitment to publishing books originally written in African languages is lacking. You can find more information in our data protection declaration. Due to high linguistic diversity, the legacy of colonialism and the need for knowledge of international languages such as English and French in employment and higher education, most schooling in Africa takes places in languages that teachers and pupils do not speak natively, and in … The African child normally starts to struggle at school when he is about ten or 11 years old, at the beginning of the fifth year of primary school. Luffman does point out that only 176 of the 1000 existing languages on the continent were to be found in classrooms, however. As we discuss below, these are She is currently based at Witwatersrand University in South Africa as a visiting professor. Mashiya (2011) found that teachers ‘smuggled’ English into their pedagogy in the foundation phase, because they regarded it as a passport to Click here to see other benefits and to sign-up to our reader community supporting quality, independent journalism. In South Africa, when Afrikaans was made a compulsory language of instruction in schools in 1974, this sparked the Soweto Youth Uprising. In South Africa, for instance, students took to the streets to call for the use of English at universities and against the use of the colonial Afrikaans and local languages like Zulu. This is also the case in Lusophone countries, where schools use Portuguese to teach. Making it difficult to access materials, teachers and the learning of our native language. It is a Bantu language believed to have originated from other languages, mainly Arabic, due to historical interactions between Arabs from the Middle East and East Africans. Finally, with so little provision for the academic study of African languages at ex-model C schools, pathways to the study of African languages at university level are closed. You may take classes in African languages, including Arabic, Swahili and Zulu, through individual college courses or degree programs in African languages or African/Africana studies. According to the 2011 PIRLS assessment, in seven countries at least 10% of students reported speaking a The Swahili language is also used as the lingua franca by most people in the country. South African parents want their children be taught in English despite the fact that research shows that academic progress is hindered if a child is taught in a language they aren't proficient in. , have proven to be engaging and creative places for multilingual children to engage with literacy. , is children who speak non-standard varieties of Afrikaans, such as Kaaps). The discourse starts from whether they have enough terminology and vocabulary to be languages of teaching and […] Classical Arabic) 2 Foreign African Language Only 3 One Local Language – Experimentation ... Pre-schools used national languages during that time, but national languages have never been taught in primary schools (Leclerc). 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