(Sarajevo: El Kalem, 1996), 150. Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421. Put simply, no other Muslim during his time held the authority he did when it came to matters of Islam. The greater part of it consists of the Persian translation of one of his Arabic books, Bedāyat al-Hedāya (Beginning of Guidance). The third section of The Alchemy of Happiness is Knowledge of the World. Medieval Islamic thought: filling the “great gap” in European economics (London: Routlegde, 2003), 38. Al-Ghazali returned to Baghdad in 1097 CE (490 H) and continued to live the life of a Sufi in the ribat of Abu Sa„id of Nishapur opposite the Nizamiya madrasa. 25 Ghazanfar, S.M. Ghazali veers from the often hardline stance of many of his contemporaries during this time period and states that as long as one believes in the Prophet Muhammad and God himself, there are many different ways to practice Islam and that any of the many traditions practiced in good faith by believers should not be viewed as heretical by other Muslims. [19] This means that in essence time stretches infinitely both into the future and into the past, which therefore proves that God did not create the universe at one specific point in time. The ultimate goal that Ghazali is presenting not only in these two chapters, but in the entirety of The Revival of the Religious Sciences, is that there must be moderation in every aspect of the soul of a man, an equilibrium. […] known about the old Persian polytheism. The other is what Al-Ghazali would consider misuse, spending it selfishly on extravagant or unnecessary material items. Al-Ghazali strongly rejected their ideology and wrote several books on criticism of Baatinyas which significantly weakened their status. [19], The believed date of al-Ghazali’s birth, as given by Ibn al-Jawzi, is AH 450 (1058/9). Al-Ghazali also played a major role in integrating Sufism with Shariah. It had numerous positive reactions, and Al-Ghazali at that point composed a condensed form in Persian under the title Kimiya-yi sa’adat (“The Alchemy of Happiness”). He was also the first to present a formal description of Sufism in his works. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 32. Nasihatul Muluk was early translated to Arabic under the title al-Tibr al-masbuk fi nasihat al-muluk (The Forged Sword in Counseling Kings). 23 Sadeq A.M. Al “Ghazalijevi pogledi na ekonomske probleme i neka etičko-pravna pitanja značajna za ekonomsko ponaÅ¡anje” in. The language and the contents of some passages are similar to the Kimyaye Sa’adat. Imam Ghazali is the first Muslim political and social philosopher who thought society quite according to the demands of human nature. Indeed, his monumental Revival of the Religious Sciences, which runs over 6000 pages and 4 volumes, was reprised as a shorter text in Persian, labeled the Alchemy of Happiness. Whereas the teacher guides the student and takes the role of a father figure and offers council to the student, and the student respects the teacher as a patriarch. Imam al-Ghazali today is known as Hujjat al-Islam, Arabic for “the Proof of the Religion” due to his contributions in protecting the Muslim world from the intellectual challenges that were facing it. He studied fiqh in his own town, then he moved to Nisapur in the company of a group of students. Averroes, by contrast insisted while God created the natural law, humans “could more usefully say that fire caused cotton to burn—because creation had a pattern that they could discern.”[37] [38][39]. Sadeq A.M., Ghazali A. The longest letter is the response to objections raised against some of his statements in Mishkat al-Anwar (The Niche of Light) and al-Munqidh min al-dalal (Rescuer from Error). The tradition of falsely attributing works to Al-Ghazali increased in the 13th century, after the dissemination of the large corpus of works by Ibn Arabi.[35]. This is only a part ofthe truth; his own confessional statement to this effect in al-Munqidh seems to be rather anover-statement of the actual facts. Here he states that the world is merely a place where humans learn to love God, and prepare for the future, or the afterlife, the nature of which will be determined by our actions in this phase of our journey to happiness[46]. Indeed, this is the work he wrote after coming out of his period of meditation and seclusion." [66], Most aspects of Al-Ghazali’s life were heavily influenced by his Islamic beliefs, and his economic philosophy was no exception. Al-Ghazali lays out in The Decisive Criterion for Distinguishing Islam from Clandestine Unbelief his approach to Muslim orthodoxy. But al-Ghazali's greatest contribution to medieval Moslem thought was his The Revivification of the Religious Sciences, a four-volume work composed in his period of withdrawal from the academic milieu of Baghdad. Nicholson, Reynold Alleyne. [29] He was born in Tabaran, a town in the district of Tus, Khorasan (now part of Iran),[28] not long after Seljuk captured Baghdad from the Shia Buyid and established Sunni Caliphate under a commission from the Abbasid Dynasty in 1055 AD. It covers almost all fields of Islamic sciences: fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), kalam (theology) and sufism. [51] At the same time, in his refutation of philosophers he made use of their philosophical categories and thus helped to give them wider circulation. He then went to his birthplace, Tus, where he continued to live as a Sufi and to write. The Incoherence also marked a turning point in Islamic philosophy in its vehement rejections of Aristotle and Plato. Modern estimates place it at AH 448 (1056/7), on the basis of certain statements in al-Ghazali’s correspondence and autobiography. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 7. His contributions played a role in the revival of the Islamic faith as taught by the prophet Muhammad before him, despite the challenges presented by philosophy during his time. In addition, he stressed the importance of understanding and sharing cultures in the classrooms to achieve a civic harmony that would be expressed outside the classroom and kindness to one another. 2, 73. is a short book of counsel that al-Ghazali wrote for one of his students. [33] Al-Ghazali received many titles such as Sharaf-ul-Aʾimma (شرف الأئمة), Zayn-ud-dīn (زين الدين) and Ḥujjat-ul-Islām (حجة الإسلام). 17 “Shaykh Jusuf Hamza”, Accessed January, 19, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MPAbZ_IQgSg. 48 Ghazanfar, S.M. During his period, he was one of the most prominent and … He is also known as Algazel in the West. The Alchemy of Happiness is a rewritten version of The Revival of the Religious Sciences. 11 Saheeh International. Therefore, they approach the business perspective with the same ideology and organizational thought. Another of al-Ghazali’s most prestigious works is Ihya’ Ulum al-Din (“The Revival of Religious S… His 11th century book titled The Incoherence of the Philosophers marks a major turn in Islamic epistemology. Hunt Janin, The Pursuit of Learning in the Islamic World 610-2003, p 83. He died on 19 December 1111. Later, he resumed his teaching duties, but again left these. Economic Thought of Al Ghazali (Jeddah: Scientific Publishing Centre King Abdulaziz Univesity, 1997), 37. His beliefs and thoughts differ in some aspects from the orthodox Asharite school.[33]. 24 Al Ghazali in Ghazanfar Mohammad, Islahi Abdul Azim. The first letter is the one which al-Ghazali wrote to Sultan Sanjar presenting his excuse for teaching in Nizamiyya of Nishapur; followed by al-Ghazali’s speech in the court of Sultan Sanjar. Imam Ghazali (RA) [1058-1128 CE] is most famous for his contributions in philosophy, religion and Sufism. “about five dozen authentic works, in addition to which some 300 other titles of works of uncertain, doubtful, or spurious authorship, many of them duplicates owing to varying titles, are cited in Muslim bibliographical literature. He stressed that socialization, family, and schools were central in the achievement of language, morality, and behavior. [67], Al-Ghazali thought that it should not be necessary to force equality of income in society but that people should be driven by “the spirit of Islamic brotherhood” to share their wealth willingly, but he recognized that it is not always the case. the name of the manuscripts of al-Ghazali’s works in different libraries of the world: The best means in explaining Allah’s Beautiful Names, The Criterion of Distinction between Islam and Clandestine Unbelief, The Excellent Refutation of the Divinity of Jesus through the Text of the Gospel, The Niche for Lights, a commentary on the Verse of Light, The Alchemy of Happiness [a résumé of Ihya’ul ulum, in Persian], The Infamies of the Esotericists, a refutation of esoteric Sufism in general and Isma’ili doctrines in particular, Aims of the Philosophers written in the beginning of his life, in favour of philosophy and presenting the basic theories in Philosophy, mostly influenced by Avicenna’s works, The Incoherence of the Philosophers), [Book refutes the Greek Philosophy aiming at Avicenna and Al-Farabi; and of which Ibn Rushd wrote his famous refutation, Criterion of Knowledge in the Art of Logic, (The medium [digest] in the Jurisprudential school), Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad, the Proof of Islam, Ornament of the Faith, Abu Hamid al-Tusi (al-Ghazali) the Shafi’ite jurist, was in his later years without rival. 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